Impacts of Real Hands on 5G Millimeter-Wave Cellphone Antennas: Measurements and Electromagnetic Models

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Penetration of cellphones into markets requires their robust operation in time-varying radio environments, especially for millimeter-wave communications. Hands and fingers of a human cause significant changes in the physical environments of cellphones, which influence the communication qualities to a large extent. In this paper, Referential cellphone antenna arrays at 28 and 39 GHz are designed, and then simplified electromagnetic models of them for simulations are developed. Their radiation properties are evaluated through near-field scanning of the two prototypes in free space, first for de-embedding the feedline loss of cellphone antennas. The similarity of radiation patterns between simplified models and cellphone mock-ups ensures the reliability for comparing simulated and measured results involving real-hand effects. Next, hand-antenna-interaction radiation measurements are set up so that we validate radiation performance simulations that use computational models of real hands that are generated by the approach in [1] and cellphones, by carrying out measurements of the same real hands and cellphone mock-ups and comparing measured to simulated results, which we show to agree well. This enables future research and development of mm-wave handset antennas relying on realistic simulations during the design phase.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8002412
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication statusPublished - 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Antenna arrays
  • Antenna feeds
  • Antenna measurements
  • Antenna radiation patterns
  • Cellphone antenna array
  • electromagnetic antenna-human interaction
  • hand modeling
  • Millimeter wave measurements
  • millimeter-wave
  • real hands
  • Solid modeling
  • spherical coverage
  • Substrates


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