We report the use of black silicon (bSi) as a growth platform for III–V nanowires (NWs), which enables low reflectance over a broad wavelength range as well as fabrication of optoelectronic devices by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. In addition, a new isolated growth regime is reported for self-catalyzed InAs NWs at record-low temperatures of 280 °C–365 °C, where consistently rectangular [-211]-oriented NWs are obtained. The bSi substrate is shown to support the growth of additionally GaAs and InP NWs, as well as heterostructured NWs. As seed particles, both ex-situ deposited Au nanoparticles and in-situ deposited In droplets are shown feasible. Particularly the InAs NWs with low band gap energy are used to extend low-reflectivity wavelength region into infrared, where the bSi alone remains transparent. Finally, a fabricated prototype device confirms the potential of III–V NWs combined with bSi for optoelectronic devices. Our results highlight the promise of III–V NWs on bSi for enhancing optoelectronic device performance on the low-cost Si substrates, and we believe that the new low-temperature NW growth regime advances the understanding and capabilities of NW growth.