CD4+ T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGLL) is a rare subtype of T-LGLL with unknown etiology. In this study, we molecularly characterized a cohort of patients (n = 35) by studying their T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and the presence of somatic STAT5B mutations. In addition to the previously described gain-of-function mutations (N642H, Y665F, Q706L, S715F), we discovered six novel STAT5B mutations (Q220H, E433K, T628S, P658R, P702A, and V712E). Multiple STAT5B mutations were present in 22% (5/23) of STAT5B mutated CD4+ T-LGLL cases, either coexisting in one clone or in distinct clones. Patients with STAT5B mutations had increased lymphocyte and LGL counts when compared to STAT5B wild-type patients. TCRβ sequencing showed that, in addition to large LGL expansions, non-leukemic T cell repertoires were more clonal in CD4+ T-LGLL compared to healthy. Interestingly, 25% (15/59) of CD4+ T-LGLL clonotypes were found, albeit in much lower frequencies, in the non-leukemic CD4+ T cell repertoires of the CD4+ T-LGLL patients. Additionally, we further confirmed the previously reported clonal dominance of TRBV6-expressing clones in CD4+ T-LGLL. In conclusion, CD4+ T-LGLL patients have a typical TCR and mutation profile suggestive of aberrant antigen response underlying the disease.