Residual hemp (Cannabis sativa) hurd fibers obtained from hydrothermal, carbonate, and kraft treatments were the resources used to obtain lignocellulosic nanofibers (LCNF) by using an ultra-fine friction grinder. The morphological, crystallinity, and chemical characteristics of the nanocellulose films were carried out using SEM, XRD, EDX and ToF-SIMS. Water barrier properties of the same were measured in terms of water contact angle, water vapor permeability (WVP) and water absorption. The barrier properties were found to be dependent not only on the lignin content and lignin distribution, but also on the film density and porous structure. LCNF films and coatings showed much higher water contact angle (WCA) (80°-102°) than films produced from the bleached CNF. WVP was found to be more dependent on the density of films than lignin content. Overall, LCNF-based films and coatings derived from hemp hurd residual fibers can contribute to a circular economy and sustainability.
- Barrier coatings
- Biodegradable films
- Circular economy
- Hemp hurds
- Lignin-containing cellulose nanofibers