Hydrogen silsesquioxane resist stamp for replication of nanophotonic components in polymers

Muhammad Rizwan Saleem*, Petri Antero Stenberg, Muhammad Bilal Khan, Zaffar Muhammad Khan, Seppo Honkanen, Jari Turunen

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


    We investigate an affordable, accurate and large-scale production method to fabricate subwavelength grating structures by hot embossing replication in polycarbonate substrates. We use inorganic hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ), a high resolution, binary, negative electron beam resist, on silicon substrate to make a stamp for replication. The stamp is fabricated without any etching processes and with simple process steps. The process starts by spin coating an HSQ-resist layer on a silicon substrate. The desired film thickness is achieved by adjusting the spinning speed and time. The resist material is then subjected to e-beam writing and development followed by a heat treatment to enhance the hardness and to obtain hot embossing stamp material properties comparable with solid SiO2. A comparison with and without the silicon etching is also performed. We demonstrate that a high quality stamp for thermal nano-imprint lithography for optical gratings can be fabricated using an inexpensive process without an etching step. The process results in a uniform imprinting density over the entire grating surface and high imprint fidelity. The reflectance spectra of replicated grating structures are also shown to be in agreement with theoretical calculations. (C) 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.JMM.11.1.013007]

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number013007
    Number of pages7
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • gratings
    • nanophotonics
    • optical devices
    • optical materials
    • submicron lithography
    • HSQ


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