Hybrid X-Ray Spectroscopy-Based approach to acquire chemical and structural information of single-Walled carbon nanotubes with superior sensitivity

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Hybrid X-Ray Spectroscopy-Based approach to acquire chemical and structural information of single-Walled carbon nanotubes with superior sensitivity. / Sainio, Sami; Wester, Niklas; Titus, Charles J.; Liao, Yongping; Zhang, Qiang; Nordlund, Dennis; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Lee, Sang Jun; Irwin, Kent D.; Doriese, William B.; O'neil, Galen C.; Swetz, Daniel S.; Ullom, Joel N.; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Laurila, Tomi; Koskinen, Jari.

In: Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 123, No. 10, 14.03.2019, p. 6114-6120.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Sainio, Sami ; Wester, Niklas ; Titus, Charles J. ; Liao, Yongping ; Zhang, Qiang ; Nordlund, Dennis ; Sokaras, Dimosthenis ; Lee, Sang Jun ; Irwin, Kent D. ; Doriese, William B. ; O'neil, Galen C. ; Swetz, Daniel S. ; Ullom, Joel N. ; Kauppinen, Esko I. ; Laurila, Tomi ; Koskinen, Jari. / Hybrid X-Ray Spectroscopy-Based approach to acquire chemical and structural information of single-Walled carbon nanotubes with superior sensitivity. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2019 ; Vol. 123, No. 10. pp. 6114-6120.

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@article{27ca0e46d0d44bdb897df6e8ca4154a1,
title = "Hybrid X-Ray Spectroscopy-Based approach to acquire chemical and structural information of single-Walled carbon nanotubes with superior sensitivity",
abstract = "High-Resolution nondestructive chemical analysis of both bulk and surface of application-Ready carbon nanomaterials is needed to connect the material properties to the observed performance. This is needed to enable application-Specific tailoring of carbon nanomaterials. However, detailed studies of effects of oxidizing treatments on the chemical composition and structural integrity of carbon and on the metal seed materials are rare. We show here a hybrid X-Ray-Based study retrieving this hard-To-Access chemical and structural information of application-Ready ferrocene-Grown single-Walled carbon nanotubes and their nitric acid- A nd oxygen plasma-Treated versions. We have executed photoelectron, absorption, and X-Ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements in the soft X-Ray regime providing chemical and structural information with high energy resolution and throughput. We observed that the nitric acid treatment did not significantly alter the chemical state of the carbon matrix, whereas the oxygen plasma treatment was associated with strong effects and chemical conversions toward oxygen-Functionalized groups such as carboxyl. Additionally, an Fe catalyst was present before and after the oxidizing treatments at considerable concentrations as detected by both X-Ray absorption spectroscopy and XES, with a near complete conversion of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ . Additional minor elements (metals <0.1 at. {\%}) were detected only with XES. With this combined approach, we can study the effect of different treatments on application-Ready carbon nanomaterials' physicochemical and structural properties with unmatched precision, which helps understand the nature of these materials.",
keywords = "METAL-FREE, THIN-FILMS, FUNCTIONALIZATION, PERFORMANCE, IMPURITIES, ELECTRODE, STORAGE, XPS",
author = "Sami Sainio and Niklas Wester and Titus, {Charles J.} and Yongping Liao and Qiang Zhang and Dennis Nordlund and Dimosthenis Sokaras and Lee, {Sang Jun} and Irwin, {Kent D.} and Doriese, {William B.} and O'neil, {Galen C.} and Swetz, {Daniel S.} and Ullom, {Joel N.} and Kauppinen, {Esko I.} and Tomi Laurila and Jari Koskinen",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b00714",
language = "English",
volume = "123",
pages = "6114--6120",
journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry C",
issn = "1932-7447",
publisher = "AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY",
number = "10",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Hybrid X-Ray Spectroscopy-Based approach to acquire chemical and structural information of single-Walled carbon nanotubes with superior sensitivity

AU - Sainio, Sami

AU - Wester, Niklas

AU - Titus, Charles J.

AU - Liao, Yongping

AU - Zhang, Qiang

AU - Nordlund, Dennis

AU - Sokaras, Dimosthenis

AU - Lee, Sang Jun

AU - Irwin, Kent D.

AU - Doriese, William B.

AU - O'neil, Galen C.

AU - Swetz, Daniel S.

AU - Ullom, Joel N.

AU - Kauppinen, Esko I.

AU - Laurila, Tomi

AU - Koskinen, Jari

PY - 2019/3/14

Y1 - 2019/3/14

N2 - High-Resolution nondestructive chemical analysis of both bulk and surface of application-Ready carbon nanomaterials is needed to connect the material properties to the observed performance. This is needed to enable application-Specific tailoring of carbon nanomaterials. However, detailed studies of effects of oxidizing treatments on the chemical composition and structural integrity of carbon and on the metal seed materials are rare. We show here a hybrid X-Ray-Based study retrieving this hard-To-Access chemical and structural information of application-Ready ferrocene-Grown single-Walled carbon nanotubes and their nitric acid- A nd oxygen plasma-Treated versions. We have executed photoelectron, absorption, and X-Ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements in the soft X-Ray regime providing chemical and structural information with high energy resolution and throughput. We observed that the nitric acid treatment did not significantly alter the chemical state of the carbon matrix, whereas the oxygen plasma treatment was associated with strong effects and chemical conversions toward oxygen-Functionalized groups such as carboxyl. Additionally, an Fe catalyst was present before and after the oxidizing treatments at considerable concentrations as detected by both X-Ray absorption spectroscopy and XES, with a near complete conversion of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ . Additional minor elements (metals <0.1 at. %) were detected only with XES. With this combined approach, we can study the effect of different treatments on application-Ready carbon nanomaterials' physicochemical and structural properties with unmatched precision, which helps understand the nature of these materials.

AB - High-Resolution nondestructive chemical analysis of both bulk and surface of application-Ready carbon nanomaterials is needed to connect the material properties to the observed performance. This is needed to enable application-Specific tailoring of carbon nanomaterials. However, detailed studies of effects of oxidizing treatments on the chemical composition and structural integrity of carbon and on the metal seed materials are rare. We show here a hybrid X-Ray-Based study retrieving this hard-To-Access chemical and structural information of application-Ready ferrocene-Grown single-Walled carbon nanotubes and their nitric acid- A nd oxygen plasma-Treated versions. We have executed photoelectron, absorption, and X-Ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements in the soft X-Ray regime providing chemical and structural information with high energy resolution and throughput. We observed that the nitric acid treatment did not significantly alter the chemical state of the carbon matrix, whereas the oxygen plasma treatment was associated with strong effects and chemical conversions toward oxygen-Functionalized groups such as carboxyl. Additionally, an Fe catalyst was present before and after the oxidizing treatments at considerable concentrations as detected by both X-Ray absorption spectroscopy and XES, with a near complete conversion of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ . Additional minor elements (metals <0.1 at. %) were detected only with XES. With this combined approach, we can study the effect of different treatments on application-Ready carbon nanomaterials' physicochemical and structural properties with unmatched precision, which helps understand the nature of these materials.

KW - METAL-FREE

KW - THIN-FILMS

KW - FUNCTIONALIZATION

KW - PERFORMANCE

KW - IMPURITIES

KW - ELECTRODE

KW - STORAGE

KW - XPS

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85062558578&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b00714

DO - 10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b00714

M3 - Article

VL - 123

SP - 6114

EP - 6120

JO - Journal of Physical Chemistry C

JF - Journal of Physical Chemistry C

SN - 1932-7447

IS - 10

ER -

ID: 32557719