Hybrid Beamforming for Massive MIMO: A Survey

Andreas F. Molisch, Vishnu V. Ratnam, Shengqian Han, Zheda Li, Sinh Le Hong Nguyen, Linsheng Li, Katsuyuki Haneda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

457 Citations (Scopus)


Hybrid multiple-antenna transceivers, which combine large-dimensional analog pre/postprocessing with lower-dimensional digital processing, are the most promising approach for reducing the hardware cost and training overhead in massive MIMO systems. This article provides a comprehensive survey of the various incarnations of such structures that have been proposed in the literature. We provide a taxonomy in terms of the required channel state information, that is, whether the processing adapts to the instantaneous or average (second-order) channel state information; while the former provides somewhat better signal- to-noise and interference ratio, the latter has much lower overhead for CSI acquisition. We furthermore distinguish hardware structures of different complexities. Finally, we point out the special design aspects for operation at millimeter-wave frequencies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8030501
Pages (from-to)134-141
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Communications Magazine
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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