Human exposure to radiofrequency energy above 6 GHz: Review of computational dosimetry studies

Akimasa Hirata*, Sachiko Kodera, Kensuke Sasaki, Jose Gomez-Tames, Ilkka Laakso, Andrew Wood, Soichi Watanabe, Kenneth R. Foster

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)
65 Downloads (Pure)


International guidelines/standards for human protection from electromagnetic fields have been revised recently, especially for frequencies above 6 GHz where new wireless communication systems have been deployed. Above this frequency a new physical quantity 'absorbed/epithelial power density' has been adopted as a dose metric. Then, the permissible level of external field strength/power density is derived for practical assessment. In addition, a new physical quantity, fluence or absorbed energy density, is introduced for protection from brief pulses (especially for shorter than 10 s). These limits were explicitly designed to avoid excessive increases in tissue temperature, based on electromagnetic and thermal modeling studies but supported by experimental data where available. This paper reviews the studies on the computational modeling/dosimetry which are related to the revision of the guidelines/standards. The comparisons with experimental data as well as an analytic solution are also been presented. Future research needs and additional comments on the revision will also be mentioned.

Original languageEnglish
Article number08TR01
Number of pages20
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 14 Apr 2021
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • international standard
  • radiofrequency safety
  • thermal effect


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