Human exposure to pulsed fields in the frequency range from 6 to 100 GHz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


  • Ilkka Laakso
  • Ryota Morimoto
  • Juhani Heinonen
  • Kari Jokela
  • Akimasa Hirata

Research units

  • Nagoya Institute of Technology


Restrictions on human exposure to electromagnetic waves at frequencies higher than 3-10 GHz are defined in terms of the incident power density to prevent excessive temperature rise in superficial tissue. However, international standards and guidelines differ in their definitions of how the power density is interpreted for brief exposures. This study investigated how the temperature rise was affected by exposure duration at frequencies higher than 6 GHz. Far-field exposure of the human face to pulses shorter than 10 s at frequencies from 6 to 100 GHz was modelled using the finite-difference time-domain method. The bioheat transfer equation was used for thermal modelling. We investigated the effects of frequency, polarization, exposure duration, and depth below the skin surface on the temperature rise. The results indicated limitations in the current human exposure guidelines and showed that radiant exposure, i.e. energy absorption per unit area, can be used to limit temperature rise for pulsed exposure. The data are useful for the development of human exposure guidelines at frequencies higher than 6 GHz.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6980-6992
Number of pages13
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • bioheat transfer, dosimetry, human exposure, microwave fields effects, millimetre waves, pulsed fields

ID: 15812253