How Lean transformation affects scheduling

Henri Tokola, Esko Niemi, Pekka Kyrenius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The Lean paradigm transforms a production company from utilisation-centric planning into a system in which other operating conditions such as short flow times, local control, reduction in variation, and first-in-first-out control are weighted as well. This paper studies how the scheduling of production changes when the above four conditions are implemented. Their effects are studied by constructing an optimisation model for the scheduling of a flow shop. The optimisation model is based on the following ideas. First, when the flow time is emphasised, the objective of the scheduling changes from utilisation to a short flow time. Second, if local control is used, it means that the optimisation is performed locally, i.e. individually at each station, and it concerns the makespan at the station. Third, if the variation is reduced, the processing times and arrival times have less variation and, fourth, the scheduling can force the flow times to have less variation by using first-in-first-out (FIFO) sequencing. The experimental results achieved using the model describe how and in which order the operating conditions under study should be implemented in the scheduling. For example, if utilisation is important, local control and FIFO should not be used before variation is reduced.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-178
JournalRobotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
Issue numberFebruary
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Lean
  • optimisation
  • scheduling


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