How Do Intelligent Goods Shape Closed-Loop Systems?

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
440 Downloads (Pure)


This article explores how disruptive technologies increase the intelligence of goods and revitalize business models in the circular economy. Applying the industrial ecology perspective, we discuss how intelligent goods can boost the sustainability of industrial ecosystems. North American and European cases highlight how business model innovators utilize goods-related information to develop more competitive closed-loop systems. We identify three archetypes of closed-loop systems – inner circles, decentralized systems, and open systems – and delineate how they leverage information resources for collaboration. This study advances the understanding of closed-loop systems in the circular economy, which is more dependent than ever on digital platforms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-44
Number of pages23
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • circular economy
  • environmental protection
  • green manufacturing

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'How Do Intelligent Goods Shape Closed-Loop Systems?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this