The possibility of using cellulose derivative films as (i) insulating material on metal electrodes or (ii) in composite electrode films on metal to produce hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence (HECL) was studied. It was shown that the luminophores known to produce HECL at thin insulating film coated cathodes (e.g. Si/SiO2 and Al2O3 electrodes) produced HECL with the present novel electrodes. In the case of composite films consisting of cellulose material doped with conducting carbon particles, the optimal cellulose/carbon black ratios were investigated by measuring the time-resolved HECL (TR-HECL) of an aromatic Tb(III) chelate. In addition to Tb(III) chelate, other well-known labels, fluorescein and Ru(bpy)3 2+ chelate, were demonstrated to produce strong HECL at the present composite electrodes, which are more environmental friendly in disposable assay cartridges as the plastic-based composites we have studied previously. Thus, it is now possible on the present basis to manufacture biodegradable paper-based assay cartridges with HECL detection of labels at biodegradable electrodes. It was shown that the present composite films are stable over wide pH range, and also time-resolved detection of Ru(bpy)3 2+ chelate is possible although its luminescence lifetime if quite short. The calibration curves were measured for presently used aromatic Tb(III) chelate and for Ru(bpy)3 2+. The detection limit (s/n = 3) was 2 · 10−10 M for the Tb(III)-chelate and 4 · 10−9 M for Ru(bpy)3 2+ in time-resolved detection mode. The relative standard deviation for Tb(III)-L1 (n = 5) emission at 10−5 M concentration was 2%. Wide linear range and low detection limits suggests that cellulose based composite electrodes can be used in HECL bioaffinity assays which was finally demonstrated here by an immunometric immunoassay.
- Bioaffinity assays
- Cellulose derivatives
- Hot electron electrochemistry
- Lanthanide electrochemiluminescence