Hidden sources of joy, fear, and sadness: Explicit versus implicit neural processing of musical emotions

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Hidden sources of joy, fear, and sadness : Explicit versus implicit neural processing of musical emotions. / Bogert, Brigitte; Numminen-Kontti, Taru; Gold, Benjamin; Sams, Mikko; Numminen, Jussi; Burunat, Iballa; Lampinen, Jouko; Brattico, Elvira.

In: Neuropsychologia, Vol. 89, 01.08.2016, p. 393-402.

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Bogert, Brigitte ; Numminen-Kontti, Taru ; Gold, Benjamin ; Sams, Mikko ; Numminen, Jussi ; Burunat, Iballa ; Lampinen, Jouko ; Brattico, Elvira. / Hidden sources of joy, fear, and sadness : Explicit versus implicit neural processing of musical emotions. In: Neuropsychologia. 2016 ; Vol. 89. pp. 393-402.

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@article{3de532993eeb45af85c449e884451844,
title = "Hidden sources of joy, fear, and sadness: Explicit versus implicit neural processing of musical emotions",
abstract = "Music is often used to regulate emotions and mood. Typically, music conveys and induces emotions even when one does not attend to them. Studies on the neural substrates of musical emotions have, however, only examined brain activity when subjects have focused on the emotional content of the music. Here we address with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processing of happy, sad, and fearful music with a paradigm in which 56 subjects were instructed to either classify the emotions (explicit condition) or pay attention to the number of instruments playing (implicit condition) in 4-s music clips. In the implicit vs. explicit condition, stimuli activated bilaterally the inferior parietal lobule, premotor cortex, caudate, and ventromedial frontal areas. The cortical dorsomedial prefrontal and occipital areas activated during explicit processing were those previously shown to be associated with the cognitive processing of music and emotion recognition and regulation. Moreover, happiness in music was associated with activity in the bilateral auditory cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and supplementary motor area, whereas the negative emotions of sadness and fear corresponded with activation of the left anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus and down-regulation of the orbitofrontal cortex. Our study demonstrates for the first time in healthy subjects the neural underpinnings of the implicit processing of brief musical emotions, particularly in frontoparietal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and striatal areas of the brain.",
keywords = "Caudate, Emotion, Explicit processing, Implicit processing, Music",
author = "Brigitte Bogert and Taru Numminen-Kontti and Benjamin Gold and Mikko Sams and Jussi Numminen and Iballa Burunat and Jouko Lampinen and Elvira Brattico",
year = "2016",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.07.005",
language = "English",
volume = "89",
pages = "393--402",
journal = "Neuropsychologia",
issn = "0028-3932",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Hidden sources of joy, fear, and sadness

T2 - Explicit versus implicit neural processing of musical emotions

AU - Bogert, Brigitte

AU - Numminen-Kontti, Taru

AU - Gold, Benjamin

AU - Sams, Mikko

AU - Numminen, Jussi

AU - Burunat, Iballa

AU - Lampinen, Jouko

AU - Brattico, Elvira

PY - 2016/8/1

Y1 - 2016/8/1

N2 - Music is often used to regulate emotions and mood. Typically, music conveys and induces emotions even when one does not attend to them. Studies on the neural substrates of musical emotions have, however, only examined brain activity when subjects have focused on the emotional content of the music. Here we address with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processing of happy, sad, and fearful music with a paradigm in which 56 subjects were instructed to either classify the emotions (explicit condition) or pay attention to the number of instruments playing (implicit condition) in 4-s music clips. In the implicit vs. explicit condition, stimuli activated bilaterally the inferior parietal lobule, premotor cortex, caudate, and ventromedial frontal areas. The cortical dorsomedial prefrontal and occipital areas activated during explicit processing were those previously shown to be associated with the cognitive processing of music and emotion recognition and regulation. Moreover, happiness in music was associated with activity in the bilateral auditory cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and supplementary motor area, whereas the negative emotions of sadness and fear corresponded with activation of the left anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus and down-regulation of the orbitofrontal cortex. Our study demonstrates for the first time in healthy subjects the neural underpinnings of the implicit processing of brief musical emotions, particularly in frontoparietal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and striatal areas of the brain.

AB - Music is often used to regulate emotions and mood. Typically, music conveys and induces emotions even when one does not attend to them. Studies on the neural substrates of musical emotions have, however, only examined brain activity when subjects have focused on the emotional content of the music. Here we address with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processing of happy, sad, and fearful music with a paradigm in which 56 subjects were instructed to either classify the emotions (explicit condition) or pay attention to the number of instruments playing (implicit condition) in 4-s music clips. In the implicit vs. explicit condition, stimuli activated bilaterally the inferior parietal lobule, premotor cortex, caudate, and ventromedial frontal areas. The cortical dorsomedial prefrontal and occipital areas activated during explicit processing were those previously shown to be associated with the cognitive processing of music and emotion recognition and regulation. Moreover, happiness in music was associated with activity in the bilateral auditory cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and supplementary motor area, whereas the negative emotions of sadness and fear corresponded with activation of the left anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus and down-regulation of the orbitofrontal cortex. Our study demonstrates for the first time in healthy subjects the neural underpinnings of the implicit processing of brief musical emotions, particularly in frontoparietal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and striatal areas of the brain.

KW - Caudate

KW - Emotion

KW - Explicit processing

KW - Implicit processing

KW - Music

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84979268215&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.07.005

DO - 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.07.005

M3 - Article

VL - 89

SP - 393

EP - 402

JO - Neuropsychologia

JF - Neuropsychologia

SN - 0028-3932

ER -

ID: 6748484