Head-mounted Displays, Smartphones, or Smartwatches? – Augmenting Conversations with Digital Representation of Self

Ilyena Hirskyj-Douglas, Mikko Kytö, David McGookin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Technologies that augment face-to-face interactions with a digital sense of self have been used to support conversations. That work has employed one homogenous technology, either 'off-the-shelf' or with a bespoke prototype, across all participants. Beyond speculative instances, it is unclear what technology individuals themselves would choose, if any, to augment their social interactions; what influence it may exert; or how use of heterogeneous devices may affect the value of this augmentation. This is important, as the devices that we use directly affect our behaviour, influencing affordances and how we engage in social interactions. Through a study of 28 participants, we compared head-mounted display, smartphones, and smartwatches to support digital augmentation of self during face-to-face interactions within a group. We identified a preference among participants for head-mounted displays to support privacy, while smartwatches and smartphones better supported conversational events (such as grounding and repair), along with group use through screen-sharing. Accordingly, we present software and hardware design recommendations and user interface guidelines for integrating a digital form of self into face-to-face conversations
Original languageEnglish
Article number179
Number of pages32
JournalProceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction
Issue numberCSCW
Publication statusPublished - 14 Nov 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
EventACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing - Austin, United States
Duration: 9 Nov 201913 Nov 2019
Conference number: 22


  • Face-to-face interactions
  • head-mounted displays
  • smartphone
  • Smartwatch
  • Conversation


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  • DigitalAura/McGookin

    Takala, T., Kantosalo, A., Epp, F. A., Jain, N. & Hirskyj-Douglas, I.


    Project: Academy of Finland: Other research funding

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