Harnessing power system flexibility under multiple uncertainties

Hesam Mazaheri, Hossein Saber, Sajjad Fattaheian-Dehkordi, Moein Moeini-Aghtaie, Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad*, Matti Lehtonen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


Increasing the intermittent outputs of renewable energy sources (RESs) has forced planners to define a new concept named flexibility. In this regard, some short- and long-term solutions, such as transmission expansion planning (TEP) and energy storage systems (ESSs) have been suggested to improve the flexibility amount. A proper optimization procedure is required to choose an optimal solution to improve flexibility. Therefore, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) direct-optimization TEP versus ESSs co-planning model is presented in this paper to enhance power system flexibility. In doing so, a novel RES-BESS-based grid-scale system flexibility metric is proposed to investigate the improvement of flexibility amount via ESSs modules in the numerical structure. In this paper, a novel repetitive fast offline method has been proposed to quickly reach the desired amount of flexibility by defining an engineering price/benefit trade-off to finally find the best investment plan. Also, multiple uncertainties associated with wind farms and demanded loads and a practical module-type battery energy storage system (BESS) structure for each node are defined. The proposed model is applied to the modified IEEE 73-bus test system including wind farms, where the numerical results prove the model efficiency as BESS impacts on flexibility, investment plans and power system economics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2878-2890
Number of pages13
JournalIET Generation, Transmission and Distribution
Issue number14
Early online date10 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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