GUMICS-4 analysis of interplanetary coronal mass ejection impact on Earth during low and typical Mach number solar winds

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GUMICS-4 analysis of interplanetary coronal mass ejection impact on Earth during low and typical Mach number solar winds. / Lakka, Antti; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Kilpua, Emilia; Ala-Lahti, Matti; Honkonen, Ilja; Palmroth, Minna; Raukunen, Osku.

In: Annales Geophysicae, Vol. 37, No. 4, 11.07.2019, p. 561-579.

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Lakka, Antti ; Pulkkinen, Tuija I. ; Dimmock, Andrew P. ; Kilpua, Emilia ; Ala-Lahti, Matti ; Honkonen, Ilja ; Palmroth, Minna ; Raukunen, Osku. / GUMICS-4 analysis of interplanetary coronal mass ejection impact on Earth during low and typical Mach number solar winds. In: Annales Geophysicae. 2019 ; Vol. 37, No. 4. pp. 561-579.

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@article{04845a26cc03478db34080c9eb12b054,
title = "GUMICS-4 analysis of interplanetary coronal mass ejection impact on Earth during low and typical Mach number solar winds",
abstract = "We study the response of the Earth's magnetosphere to fluctuating solar wind conditions during interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using the Grand Unified Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Simulation (GUMICS-4). The two ICME events occurred on 15-16 July 2012 and 29-30 April 2014. During the strong 2012 event, the solar wind upstream values reached up to 35 particles cm(-3), speeds of up to 694 km s(-1), and an interplanetary magnetic field of up to 22 nT, giving a Mach number of 2.3. The 2014 event was a moderate one, with the corresponding upstream values of 30 particles cm(-3), 320 km s(-1) and 10 nT, indicating a Mach number of 5.8. We examine how the Earth's space environment dynamics evolves during both ICME events from both global and local perspectives, using well-established empirical models and in situ measurements as references. We show that on the large scale, and during moderate driving, the GUMICS-4 results are in good agreement with the reference values. However, the local values, especially during high driving, show more variation: such extreme conditions do not reproduce local measurements made deep inside the magnetosphere. The same appeared to be true when the event was run with another global simulation. The cross-polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation is shown to depend on the Alfven-Mach number of the upstream solar wind. However, care must be taken in interpreting these results, as the CPCP is also sensitive to the simulation resolution.",
keywords = "CAP POTENTIAL SATURATION, HIGH-LATITUDE, GEOMAGNETIC-ACTIVITY, PLASMA TRANSPORT, MHD SIMULATION, MAGNETOSPHERE, MODEL, SHOCK, IONOSPHERE, STORMS",
author = "Antti Lakka and Pulkkinen, {Tuija I.} and Dimmock, {Andrew P.} and Emilia Kilpua and Matti Ala-Lahti and Ilja Honkonen and Minna Palmroth and Osku Raukunen",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "11",
doi = "10.5194/angeo-37-561-2019",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "561--579",
journal = "Annales Geophysicae",
issn = "0992-7689",
publisher = "Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH",
number = "4",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - GUMICS-4 analysis of interplanetary coronal mass ejection impact on Earth during low and typical Mach number solar winds

AU - Lakka, Antti

AU - Pulkkinen, Tuija I.

AU - Dimmock, Andrew P.

AU - Kilpua, Emilia

AU - Ala-Lahti, Matti

AU - Honkonen, Ilja

AU - Palmroth, Minna

AU - Raukunen, Osku

PY - 2019/7/11

Y1 - 2019/7/11

N2 - We study the response of the Earth's magnetosphere to fluctuating solar wind conditions during interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using the Grand Unified Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Simulation (GUMICS-4). The two ICME events occurred on 15-16 July 2012 and 29-30 April 2014. During the strong 2012 event, the solar wind upstream values reached up to 35 particles cm(-3), speeds of up to 694 km s(-1), and an interplanetary magnetic field of up to 22 nT, giving a Mach number of 2.3. The 2014 event was a moderate one, with the corresponding upstream values of 30 particles cm(-3), 320 km s(-1) and 10 nT, indicating a Mach number of 5.8. We examine how the Earth's space environment dynamics evolves during both ICME events from both global and local perspectives, using well-established empirical models and in situ measurements as references. We show that on the large scale, and during moderate driving, the GUMICS-4 results are in good agreement with the reference values. However, the local values, especially during high driving, show more variation: such extreme conditions do not reproduce local measurements made deep inside the magnetosphere. The same appeared to be true when the event was run with another global simulation. The cross-polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation is shown to depend on the Alfven-Mach number of the upstream solar wind. However, care must be taken in interpreting these results, as the CPCP is also sensitive to the simulation resolution.

AB - We study the response of the Earth's magnetosphere to fluctuating solar wind conditions during interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using the Grand Unified Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Simulation (GUMICS-4). The two ICME events occurred on 15-16 July 2012 and 29-30 April 2014. During the strong 2012 event, the solar wind upstream values reached up to 35 particles cm(-3), speeds of up to 694 km s(-1), and an interplanetary magnetic field of up to 22 nT, giving a Mach number of 2.3. The 2014 event was a moderate one, with the corresponding upstream values of 30 particles cm(-3), 320 km s(-1) and 10 nT, indicating a Mach number of 5.8. We examine how the Earth's space environment dynamics evolves during both ICME events from both global and local perspectives, using well-established empirical models and in situ measurements as references. We show that on the large scale, and during moderate driving, the GUMICS-4 results are in good agreement with the reference values. However, the local values, especially during high driving, show more variation: such extreme conditions do not reproduce local measurements made deep inside the magnetosphere. The same appeared to be true when the event was run with another global simulation. The cross-polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation is shown to depend on the Alfven-Mach number of the upstream solar wind. However, care must be taken in interpreting these results, as the CPCP is also sensitive to the simulation resolution.

KW - CAP POTENTIAL SATURATION

KW - HIGH-LATITUDE

KW - GEOMAGNETIC-ACTIVITY

KW - PLASMA TRANSPORT

KW - MHD SIMULATION

KW - MAGNETOSPHERE

KW - MODEL

KW - SHOCK

KW - IONOSPHERE

KW - STORMS

U2 - 10.5194/angeo-37-561-2019

DO - 10.5194/angeo-37-561-2019

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 561

EP - 579

JO - Annales Geophysicae

JF - Annales Geophysicae

SN - 0992-7689

IS - 4

ER -

ID: 35762808