Graphene Family Nanomaterials in Ocular Applications: Physicochemical Properties and Toxicity

Sedigheh Borandeh*, Vahid Alimardani, Samira Sadat Abolmaali, Jukka Seppälä*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

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Graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs) are rapidly emerging for ocular applications due to their outstanding physicochemical properties. Since the eyes are very sensitive organs and the contact between the eyes and GFNs in eye drops, contact lenses, intraocular drug delivery systems and biosensors and even the workers handling these nanomaterials is inevitable, it is necessary to investigate their ocular toxicities and physiological interactions with cells as well as their toxicity mechanisms. The toxicity of GFNs can be extremely affected by their physicochemical properties, including composition, size, surface chemistry, and oxidation level as well as dose and the time of exposure. Up to now, there are several studies on the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of GFNs; however, a comprehensive review on ocular toxicity and applications of GFNs is missing, and a knowledge about the health risks of eye exposure to the GFNs is predominantly unspecified. This review highlights the ocular applications of GFNs and systematically covers the most recent advances of GFNs' physicochemical properties, in vitro and in vivo ocular toxicity, and the possible toxicity mechanisms as well as provides some perspectives on the potential risks of GFNs in material development and biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1386–1402
Number of pages17
Issue number6
Early online date27 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2021
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


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