Global protected area expansion is compromised by projected land-use and parochialism

Federico Montesino Pouzols, Tuuli Toivonen, Enrico Di Minin, Aija S. Kukkala, Peter Kullberg, Johanna Kuusterä, Joona Lehtomäki, Henrikki Tenkanen, Peter H. Verburg, Atte Moilanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

254 Citations (Scopus)


Protected areas are one of the main tools for halting the continuing global biodiversity crisis caused by habitat loss, fragmentation and other anthropogenic pressures. According to the Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity, the protected area network should be expanded to at least 17% of the terrestrial world by 2020 ( To maximize conservation outcomes, it is crucial to identify the best expansion areas. Here we show that there is a very high potential to increase protection of ecoregions and vertebrate species by expanding the protected area network, but also identify considerable risk of ineffective outcomes due to land-use change and uncoordinated actions between countries. We use distribution data for 24,757 terrestrial vertebrates assessed under the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 'red list of threatened species, and terrestrial ecoregions10 (827), modified by land-use models for the present and 2040, and introduce techniques for global and balanced spatial conservation prioritization. First, weshowthatwith a coordinated global protected area network expansion to 17%of terrestrial land, average protection of species ranges and ecoregions could triple. Second, if projected land-use change by 2040 (ref. 11) takes place, it becomes infeasible to reach the currently possible protection levels, and over 1,000 threatened species would lose more than 50% of their present effective rangesworldwide.Third,wedemonstrate amajor efficiency gap between national and global conservation priorities. Strong evidence is shown that further biodiversity loss is unavoidable unless international action is quickly taken to balance land-use and biodiversity conservation. The approach used here can serve as a framework for repeatable andquantitative assessment of efficiency, gaps and expansion of the global protected area network globally, regionally andnationally, considering current andprojected land-use pressures. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)383-386
Number of pages4
Issue number7531
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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