Geoid Validation on the Baltic Sea Using Ship-borne GNSS Data

Maaria Nordman*, Jaakko Kuokkanen, Mirjam Bilker-Koivula, Hannu Koivula, Pasi Häkli, Sonja Lahtinen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


We studied geoid validation using ship-borne global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) on the Baltic Sea. We obtained geoid heights by combining GNSS–inertial measurement unit observations, tide gauge data, and a physical sea model. We used two different geoid models available for the area. The ship route was divided into lines and the lines were processed separately. The GNSS results were reduced to the sea surface using attitude and draft parameters available from the vessel during the campaign. For these lines, the residual errors between ellipsoidal height versus geoid height and absolute dynamic topography varied between 0 and 15 cm, grand mean being 2 cm. The mean standard deviations of the original time series were approximately 11 cm and reduced to below 5 cm for the time series filtered with 10 min moving average. We showed that it is possible to recover geoid heights from the GNSS observations at sea and validate existing geoid models in a well-controlled area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)457-476
Number of pages20
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 3 Sept 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Baltic Sea
  • GNSS
  • marine geoid


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