Generic PLL-Based Grid-Forming Control

Lennart Harnefors*, Mario Schweizer, Jarno Kukkola, Mikko Routimo, Marko Hinkkanen, Xiongfei Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)
364 Downloads (Pure)


In grid-forming control, the swing equation of a synchronous machine is emulated by a power controller. Thereby, frequency droop, power-oscillation damping, and/or virtual inertia can be obtained. In this letter, it is shown that a phase-locked loop - which is normally grid following - can be designed so as to, in turn, emulate a generic power controller, thus, becoming grid-forming.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1201-1204
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number2
Early online date19 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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