Generalized Theory of Characteristic Modes

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8 Citations (Scopus)


The theory of characteristic modes (TCM) is presented for arbitrarily shaped 3-D structures including perfect electric conductors (PECs) and homogeneous penetrable objects. It is shown that by properly expressing the weighting operator of the generalized eigenvalue equation in terms of the integral operators related to the radiated fields, TCM can be formulated directly for the surface integral equation formulation of the problem. This avoids symmetrization or other modifications of the equations. The eigenvalues are shown to be related to radiated, reactive, and dissipated power, and the corresponding far-field patterns are orthogonal. The previously introduced TCM formulations for PEC are special cases of this generalized TCM.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8668452
Pages (from-to)3915-3923
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number6
Early online date2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions
  • Integral equations
  • Symmetric matrices
  • Conductors
  • Dielectrics
  • Antennas
  • Surface waves
  • Composite structure
  • dielectric body
  • generalized eigenvalue equation
  • lossy target
  • perfect electric conductor
  • surface integral equation
  • theory of characteristic modes

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