Fundamentals of Titanium Deoxidation

Lauri Holappa, Miia Kiviö

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

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Fundamentals of titanium as an effective actor in deoxidation and inclusion forming
additive in steel are discussed. Ti-O equilibria in pure iron and in different example
steels are compared and the premises for the influence of titanium are shown. Formation and transformations of titanium containing inclusions during solidification are examined. Examples of final inclusions in Ti deoxidised steels are presented. Titanium in steelmaking slags, occurrence as four- and three-valent titanium and activity of TiOx in slags are further discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking
Subtitle of host publicationICS 2012
EditorsPiotr Scheller
Place of PublicationDresden
PublisherENGICOM GmbH Germany
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication


  • Titanium deoxidation
  • steels
  • inclusions
  • slag


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