Fundamentals of force-controlled friction riveting: Part I-joint formation and heat development

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


  • Gonçalo Pina Cipriano
  • Lucian A. Blaga
  • Jorge F. dos Santos
  • Pedro Vilaça
  • Sergio T. Amancio-Filho

Research units

  • Graz University of Technology
  • Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht - Centre for Materials and Coastal Research


This work presents a systematic study on the correlations between process parameters and rivet plastic deformation, produced by force-controlled friction riveting. The 5 mm diameter AA2024 rivets were joined to 13 mm, nominal thickness, polyetherimide plates. A wide range of joint formations was obtained, reflecting the variation in total energy input (24-208 J) and process temperature (319-501 °C). The influence of the process parameters on joint formation was determined, using a central composite design and response surface methodology. Friction time displayed the highest contribution on both rivet penetration (61.9%) and anchoring depth (34.7%), and friction force on the maximum width of the deformed rivet tip (46.5%). Quadratic effects and two-way interactions were significant on rivet anchoring depth (29.8 and 20.8%, respectively). Bell-shaped rivet plastic deformation-high mechanical interlocking-results from moderate energy inputs (~100 J). These geometries are characterized by: rivet penetration depth of 7 to 9 mm; maximum width of the deformed rivet tip of 9 to 12 mm; and anchoring depth higher than 6 mm. This knowledge allows the production of optimized friction-riveted connections and a deeper understanding of the joining mechanisms, further discussed in Part II of this work.


Original languageEnglish
Article number2294
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • Friction, Hybrid structures, Joining, Response surface, Riveting

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