The aerodynamic effects of Cold Soaked Fuel Frost have become increasingly significant as airworthiness authorities have been asked to allow it during aircraft take-off. The Federal Aviation Administration and the Finnish Transport Safety Agency signed a Research Agreement in aircraft icing research in 2015 and started a research co-operation in frost formation studies, computational fluid dynamics for ground de/anti-icing fluids, and de/anti-icing fluids aerodynamic characteristics. The main effort has been so far on the formation and aerodynamic effects of CSFF. To investigate the effects, a generic high-lift common research wind tunnel model and DLR-F15 airfoil, representing the wing of a modern jet aircraft, was built including a wing tank cooling system. Real frost was generated on the wing in a wind tunnel test section and the frost thickness was measured with an Elcometer gauge. Frost surface geometry was measured with laser scanning and photogrammetry. The aerodynamic effect of the frost was studied in a simulated aircraft take-off sequence, in which the speed was accelerated to a typical rotation speed and the wing model was then rotated to an angle of attack used at initial climb. Time histories of the lift coefficient were measured with a force balance. The experiments showed that depending on the ambient temperature the frost may evaporate/melt during the take-off sequence. Lift losses after rotation with CSFF contamination at ambient temperatures of 4° to 7°C above freezing point were measured to be 4 to 5 % for roughness values, k/c, below 10-3. For comparison, lift loss tests with typical anti-icing fluids were performed resulting to roughly equal lift losses. This paper gives an overview of the performed activities.
|Journal||SAE Technical Papers|
|Publication status||Published - 10 Jun 2019|
|MoE publication type||A4 Article in a conference publication|
|Event||SAE International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures - Minneapolis, United States|
Duration: 17 Jun 2019 → 21 Jun 2019