## Abstract

We consider questions that arise from the intersection between the areas of polynomial-time approximation algorithms, subexponential-time algorithms, and fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) algorithms. The questions, which have been asked several times, are whether there is a nontrivial FPT-approximation algorithm for the Maximum Clique (Clique) and Minimum Dominating Set (DomSet) problems parameterized by the size of the optimal solution. In particular, letting OPT be the optimum and N be the size of the input, is there an algorithm that runs in t(OPT)poly(N) time and outputs a solution of size f(OPT) for any computable functions t and f that are independent of N (for Clique, we want f (OPT) = omega(1))? In this paper, we show that both Clique and DomSet admit no nontrivial FPT-approximation algorithm, i.e., there is no o(OPT)-FPT-approximation algorithm for Clique and no f (OPT)-FPT-approximation algorithm for DomSet for any function f. In fact, our results imply something even stronger: The best way to solve Clique and DomSet, even approximately, is to essentially enumerate all possibilities. Our results hold under the Gap Exponential Time Hypothesis [I. Dinur. ECCC, TR16-128, 2016; P. Manurangsi and P. Raghavendra, preprint, arXiv:1607.02986, 2016], which states that no 2(o(n))-time algorithm can distinguish between a satisfiable 3 SAT formula and one which is not even (1 - epsilon)-satisfiable for some constant epsilon > 0. Besides Clique and DomSet, we also rule out nontrivial FPT-approximation for the Maximum Biclique problem, the problem of finding maximum subgraphs with hereditary properties (e.g., Maximum Induced Planar Subgraph), and Maximum Induced Matching in bipartite graphs, and we rule out the k(o(1))-FPT-approximation algorithm for the Densest k-Subgraph problem.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 772-810 |

Number of pages | 39 |

Journal | SIAM JOURNAL ON COMPUTING |

Volume | 49 |

Issue number | 4 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2020 |

MoE publication type | A1 Journal article-refereed |

## Keywords

- hardness of approximation
- parameterized complexity
- subexponential-time algorithms
- fine-grained complexity
- clique
- dominating set
- DENSE K-SUBGRAPH
- LOWER BOUNDS
- COMPLEXITY
- HARDNESS
- INAPPROXIMABILITY
- APPROXIMATION
- PROOFS