Frequency-agile pathloss models for urban street canyons

Katsuyuki Haneda*, Nobutaka Omaki, Tetsuro Imai, Leszek Raschkowski, Michael Peter, Antti Roivainen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Frequency-agile pathloss models for urban street canyons are discussed in this paper. The models are floating intercept (FI), fixed reference (FR), and ITU-R M.2135 urban microcellular (UMi) line-of-sight (LOS) and Manhattan-grid non-LOS (NLOS) models. These models are parameterized based on channel sounding campaigns in three cities covering radio frequencies ranging from 0.8 to 60 GHz. Fitting the models with measured pathloss reveals that the models are usable to cover the considered frequency range. The FI and FR models are equally simple and robust, with a slight advantage of the FI model in accuracy because of the larger number of model parameters. The original M.2135 LOS model is based on a two-ray model that includes a break point (BP). The model is extended for a better fit with measurements by including new model parameters such as a pathloss offset and a BP scaling factor that represent local scattering conditions of surrounding environments. The new model parameters are found frequency dependent in many cases. The original M.2135 model is furthermore simplified in NLOS scenarios while maintaining the model accuracy. The model parameters are derived using maximum likelihood estimation, which also showed that the modified M.2135 model offers up to 50% better accuracy compared to the FI and FR models in terms of the employed log-likelihood function (LLF). The improvement in accuracy is particularly remarkable in NLOS scenarios. A full set of parameters is provided for the models, allowing a choice for any given requirements on accuracy and complexity. Finally, applicability of the proposed models to other street canyons is discussed using independent pathloss measurements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7421994
Pages (from-to)1941-1951
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • microwave frequency
  • millimeter-wave frequency
  • Pathloss model


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