Free-Form Gaze Passwords from Cameras Embedded in Smart Glasses

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Standard

Free-Form Gaze Passwords from Cameras Embedded in Smart Glasses. / Friström, Eira; Lius, Elias; Ulmanen, Niki; Hietala, Pekka; Kärkkäinen, Pauliina; Mäkinen, Tommi; Sigg, Stephan; Findling, Rainhard.

17th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2019). ACM, 2019.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Harvard

Friström, E, Lius, E, Ulmanen, N, Hietala, P, Kärkkäinen, P, Mäkinen, T, Sigg, S & Findling, R 2019, Free-Form Gaze Passwords from Cameras Embedded in Smart Glasses. in 17th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2019). ACM, International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia, Munich, Germany, 02/12/2019.

APA

Friström, E., Lius, E., Ulmanen, N., Hietala, P., Kärkkäinen, P., Mäkinen, T., ... Findling, R. (Accepted/In press). Free-Form Gaze Passwords from Cameras Embedded in Smart Glasses. In 17th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2019) ACM.

Vancouver

Friström E, Lius E, Ulmanen N, Hietala P, Kärkkäinen P, Mäkinen T et al. Free-Form Gaze Passwords from Cameras Embedded in Smart Glasses. In 17th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2019). ACM. 2019

Author

Friström, Eira ; Lius, Elias ; Ulmanen, Niki ; Hietala, Pekka ; Kärkkäinen, Pauliina ; Mäkinen, Tommi ; Sigg, Stephan ; Findling, Rainhard. / Free-Form Gaze Passwords from Cameras Embedded in Smart Glasses. 17th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2019). ACM, 2019.

Bibtex - Download

@inproceedings{8262c0af38b94566a090bfbfc0f2585a,
title = "Free-Form Gaze Passwords from Cameras Embedded in Smart Glasses",
abstract = "Contemporary personal mobile devices support a variety of authentication approaches, featuring different levels of security and usability. With cameras embedded in smart glasses, seamless, hands-free mobile authentication based on gaze is possible. Gaze authentication relies on knowledge as a secret, and gaze passwords are composed from a series of gaze points or gaze gestures. This paper investigates the concept of free-form mobile gaze passwords. Instead of relying on gaze gestures or points, free-form gaze gestures exploit the trajectory of the gaze over time. We collect and investigate a set of 29 different free-form gaze passwords from 19 subjects. In addition, the practical security of the approach is investigated in a study with 6 attackers observing eye movements during password input to subsequently perform spoofing. Our investigation indicates that most free-form gaze passwords can be expressed asa set of common geometrical shapes. Further, our free-form gaze authentication yields a true positive rate of 81{\%} and a false positive rate with other gaze passwords of 12{\%}, while targeted observation and spoofing is successful in 17.5{\%} of all cases. Our usability study reveals that further work on the usability of gaze input is required as subjects reported that they felt uncomfortable creating and performing free-form passwords.",
keywords = "authentication, free-form, gaze password, matching, smart glasses",
author = "Eira Fristr{\"o}m and Elias Lius and Niki Ulmanen and Pekka Hietala and Pauliina K{\"a}rkk{\"a}inen and Tommi M{\"a}kinen and Stephan Sigg and Rainhard Findling",
note = "Avaa k{\"a}sikirjoitus, kun konf. julkaistu.",
year = "2019",
language = "English",
booktitle = "17th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2019)",
publisher = "ACM",

}

RIS - Download

TY - GEN

T1 - Free-Form Gaze Passwords from Cameras Embedded in Smart Glasses

AU - Friström, Eira

AU - Lius, Elias

AU - Ulmanen, Niki

AU - Hietala, Pekka

AU - Kärkkäinen, Pauliina

AU - Mäkinen, Tommi

AU - Sigg, Stephan

AU - Findling, Rainhard

N1 - Avaa käsikirjoitus, kun konf. julkaistu.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Contemporary personal mobile devices support a variety of authentication approaches, featuring different levels of security and usability. With cameras embedded in smart glasses, seamless, hands-free mobile authentication based on gaze is possible. Gaze authentication relies on knowledge as a secret, and gaze passwords are composed from a series of gaze points or gaze gestures. This paper investigates the concept of free-form mobile gaze passwords. Instead of relying on gaze gestures or points, free-form gaze gestures exploit the trajectory of the gaze over time. We collect and investigate a set of 29 different free-form gaze passwords from 19 subjects. In addition, the practical security of the approach is investigated in a study with 6 attackers observing eye movements during password input to subsequently perform spoofing. Our investigation indicates that most free-form gaze passwords can be expressed asa set of common geometrical shapes. Further, our free-form gaze authentication yields a true positive rate of 81% and a false positive rate with other gaze passwords of 12%, while targeted observation and spoofing is successful in 17.5% of all cases. Our usability study reveals that further work on the usability of gaze input is required as subjects reported that they felt uncomfortable creating and performing free-form passwords.

AB - Contemporary personal mobile devices support a variety of authentication approaches, featuring different levels of security and usability. With cameras embedded in smart glasses, seamless, hands-free mobile authentication based on gaze is possible. Gaze authentication relies on knowledge as a secret, and gaze passwords are composed from a series of gaze points or gaze gestures. This paper investigates the concept of free-form mobile gaze passwords. Instead of relying on gaze gestures or points, free-form gaze gestures exploit the trajectory of the gaze over time. We collect and investigate a set of 29 different free-form gaze passwords from 19 subjects. In addition, the practical security of the approach is investigated in a study with 6 attackers observing eye movements during password input to subsequently perform spoofing. Our investigation indicates that most free-form gaze passwords can be expressed asa set of common geometrical shapes. Further, our free-form gaze authentication yields a true positive rate of 81% and a false positive rate with other gaze passwords of 12%, while targeted observation and spoofing is successful in 17.5% of all cases. Our usability study reveals that further work on the usability of gaze input is required as subjects reported that they felt uncomfortable creating and performing free-form passwords.

KW - authentication

KW - free-form

KW - gaze password

KW - matching

KW - smart glasses

M3 - Conference contribution

BT - 17th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2019)

PB - ACM

ER -

ID: 37133586