Free-Form Gaze Passwords from Cameras Embedded in Smart Glasses

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


  • Eira Friström
  • Elias Lius
  • Niki Ulmanen
  • Pekka Hietala
  • Pauliina Kärkkäinen
  • Tommi Mäkinen
  • Stephan Sigg
  • Rainhard Findling

Research units

  • Aalto University


Contemporary personal mobile devices support a variety of authentication approaches, featuring different levels of security and usability. With cameras embedded in smart glasses, seamless, hands-free mobile authentication based on gaze is possible. Gaze authentication relies on knowledge as a secret, and gaze passwords are composed from a series of gaze points or gaze gestures. This paper investigates the concept of free-form mobile gaze passwords. Instead of relying on gaze gestures or points, free-form gaze gestures exploit the trajectory of the gaze over time. We collect and investigate a set of 29 different free-form gaze passwords from 19 subjects. In addition, the practical security of the approach is investigated in a study with 6 attackers observing eye movements during password input to subsequently perform spoofing. Our investigation indicates that most free-form gaze passwords can be expressed as
a set of common geometrical shapes. Further, our free-form gaze authentication yields a true positive rate of 81% and a false positive rate with other gaze passwords of 12%, while targeted observation and spoofing is successful in 17.5% of all cases. Our usability study reveals that further work on the usability of gaze input is required as subjects reported that they felt uncomfortable creating and performing free-form passwords.


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication17th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing & Multimedia (MoMM2019)
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2019
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventInternational Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia - Munich, Germany
Duration: 2 Dec 20194 Dec 2019
Conference number: 17


ConferenceInternational Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia
Abbreviated titleMoMM

    Research areas

  • authentication, free-form, gaze password, matching, smart glasses

ID: 37133586