Formation of Highly Doped Nanostripes in 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides via a Dislocation Climb Mechanism

Yung Chang Lin*, Jeyakumar Karthikeyan, Yao Pang Chang, Shisheng Li, Silvan Kretschmer, Hannu Pekka Komsa, Po Wen Chiu, Arkady V. Krasheninnikov, Kazu Suenaga

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
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Doping of materials beyond the dopant solubility limit remains a challenge, especially when spatially nonuniform doping is required. In 2D materials with a high surface-to-volume ratio, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, various post-synthesis approaches to doping have been demonstrated, but full control over spatial distribution of dopants remains a challenge. A post-growth doping of single layers of WSe2 is performed by adding transition metal (TM) atoms in a two-step process, which includes annealing followed by deposition of dopants together with Se or S. The Ti, V, Cr, and Fe impurities at W sites are identified by using transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Remarkably, an extremely high density (6.4–15%) of various types of impurity atoms is achieved. The dopants are revealed to be largely confined within nanostripes embedded in the otherwise pristine WSe2. Density functional theory calculations show that the dislocations assist the incorporation of the dopant during their climb and give rise to stripes of TM dopant atoms. This work demonstrates a possible spatially controllable doping strategy to achieve the desired local electronic, magnetic, and optical properties in 2D materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2007819
Number of pages8
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number12
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • dislocation migration
  • doping
  • nanostripes
  • transition metal dichalcogenides


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