Fluctuations of heat in driven two-state systems : Application to a single-electron box with superconducting gap

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Abstract

By using trajectory averaging to analyze the statistics of energy dissipation in the nonequilibrium energy-state transitions of a driven two-state system, we show that the average energy dissipation induced by external driving is connected to its fluctuations about equilibrium through the simple relation 2kBT(Q)=(δQ2), which is preserved by an adiabatic approximation scheme. We use this scheme to obtain the heat statistics of a single-electron box with a superconducting lead in the slow-driving regime, where the dissipated heat becomes normally distributed with a relatively high probability to be extracted from the environment rather than dissipated. We also discuss the validity of heat fluctuation relations beyond driven two-state transitions and the slow-driving regime.

Original languageEnglish
Article number054113
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalPhysical Review E
Volume107
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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