Flexible operation of grid-connected microgrid using ES

Mohammadali Norouzi, Jamshid Aghaei*, Sasan Pirouzi, Taher Niknam, Matti Lehtonen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


This study presents a new solution to cope with the intermittent nature of renewable generations (RGs) and facilitate the integration of RGs in the smart active distribution network. Electric spring (ES) as one of the most influential solutions in demand-side management is proposed as a flexible resource for flexible operation of grid-connected microgrid against other sources of uncertainty such as forecasted load demand and energy price as well as the RGs output. This innovative approach has been considered in the context of a stochastic problem by presenting the static model of ES for the first time. The modelling of uncertainties is done by the roulette wheel mechanism as a scenario generation process and backward method for reducing the number of scenarios. In the proposed optimisation problem, the objective function is minimising the operating cost and voltage deviation as well as maximising system flexibility, subject to the AC power flow, ES and RGs constraints and technical system limitations. Finally, the proposed solution is tested on 33-bus IEEE test system by the general algebraic modelling system software. The case studies demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed ES model in different simulation and experimental cases in providing flexi-renewable microgrid.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)254-264
Number of pages11
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Load flow
  • Distributed power generation
  • Distribution networks
  • Optimisation


Dive into the research topics of 'Flexible operation of grid-connected microgrid using ES'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this