Flexible Motion Optimization with Modulated Assistive Forces

Nam Hee Kim*, Hung Yu Ling, Zhaoming Xie, Michiel van de Panne

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Animated motions should be simple to direct while also being plausible. We present a flexible keyframe-based character animation system that generates plausible simulated motions for both physically-feasible and physically-infeasible motion specifications. We introduce a novel control parameterization, optimizing over internal actions, external assistive-force modulation, and keyframe timing. Our method allows for emergent behaviors between keyframes, does not require advance knowledge of contacts or exact motion timing, supports the creation of physically impossible motions, and allows for near-interactive motion creation. The use of a shooting method allows for the use of any black-box simulator. We present results for a variety of 2D and 3D characters and motions, using sparse and dense keyframes. We compare our control parameterization scheme against other possible approaches for incorporating external assistive forces.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1
Pages (from-to)1-25
Number of pages25
JournalProceedings of the ACM on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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