Flexible Loads in Smart Grids - Charging Solutions for Electric Vehicles and Storage Space Heating

Farhan Hameed Malik

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles


Renewable generation sources provide emission free power production, however their intermittent nature requires more elasticity on the demand side. Matching the demand and supply with more intermittent renewable sources in the system is challenging due to their variable generation. A bulk storage media for electrical energy and a big share of time shiftable load could help solve the problem to a great extent in increasing the utilization of network resources and achieving the optimal usage of energy. Large storage could offer a worthy cushion to house fluctuations on both the generation and consumption sides. Shifting the time of use for flexible loads could offer cost savings to the end customer and support the network in dealing with critical situations. Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Storage Space Heating (SSH) have a great potential as a flexible load and storage media. For instance, EVs could draw extra power from the power grid in off-peak hours or with the excessive production from renewables. It could supply power back to the power grid in peak hours or if generation from the renewables is dropped. If penetration of EVs increase rapidly, then fulfilling their charging needs in every scenario with the existing power network and market mechanism would be challenging. The development of intelligent charging infrastructure for EVs to charge them as optimally as possible both in terms of charging cost and time is a subject of concern. Along with EVs, space heating load contributes a big share in the overall load of a household. SSH has an abundant potential as a flexible load for grid support in energy balance management. Intelligent charging control of Heat Storage (HS) could assist the grid in mitigating fluctuations on both the consumption and generation sides. This study considers the charging solutions for EVs and SSH. The main focus of this work is to suggest charging solutions for EVs for fulfilling their charging needs in every scenario. This research investigates the impact of different power tariffs on charging profiles under various simulation scenarios, to propose a demand bidding framework for rescheduling of charging and make a feasibility study on uncontrolled fast charging of EVs on highways. This thesis is a slight addition in the field of power systems engineering, especially in charging solutions for EVs and SSH in energy balance management. Elementary advantage is the customer participation in energy market. Cost effective use of energy and power network resources could be achieved. Fluctuations due to intermittent renewable generation could be mitigated. Network capacity utilization and possible expansion of the grid with the increased EV penetration is identified.
Translated title of the contributionFlexible Loads in Smart Grids - Charging Solutions for Electric Vehicles and Storage Space Heating
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor's degree
Awarding Institution
  • Aalto University
  • Lehtonen, Matti, Supervising Professor
  • Lehtonen, Matti, Thesis Advisor
Print ISBNs978-952-60-7129-9
Electronic ISBNs978-952-60-7128-2
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)


  • battery charging
  • demand response
  • electric vehicles
  • flexible loads
  • smart grid
  • storage space heating


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