Flash smelting and converting furnaces: A 50 year retrospect

Ilkka V. Kojo, Ari Jokilaakso, Pekka Hanniala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)


1999 marked the 50th anniversary of the Outokumpu flash-smelting process. Originating during the post-World War II energy crisis, flash smelting is a high-intensity process developed to attain ever-increasing throughputs and intensities. Many innovations and continuous development ensued during the next 50 years before today's state-of-the-art copper-making process chain and environmental benchmarking technology (e.g., Outokumpu flash smelting, Kennecott-Outokumpu flash converting, and flash technology) became possible. This article reviews how Outokumpu flash furnace design, especially cooling for higher heat loads, has improved over the years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-61
Number of pages5
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2000
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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