First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring

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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring. / Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration ; Savolainen, Tuomas.

In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 875, No. 1, L5, 10.04.2019.

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@article{bfa6873484c7414d92c535e896637417,
title = "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring",
abstract = "The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has mapped the central compact radio source of the elliptical galaxy M87 at 1.3 mm with unprecedented angular resolution. Here we consider the physical implications of the asymmetric ring seen in the 2017 EHT data. To this end, we construct a large library of models based on general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations and synthetic images produced by general relativistic ray tracing. We compare the observed visibilities with this library and confirm that the asymmetric ring is consistent with earlier predictions of strong gravitational lensing of synchrotron emission from a hot plasma orbiting near the black hole event horizon. The ring radius and ring asymmetry depend on black hole mass and spin, respectively, and both are therefore expected to be stable when observed in future EHT campaigns. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a spinning Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. If the black hole spin and M87's large scale jet are aligned, then the black hole spin vector is pointed away from Earth. Models in our library of non-spinning black holes are inconsistent with the observations as they do not produce sufficiently powerful jets. At the same time, in those models that produce a sufficiently powerful jet, the latter is powered by extraction of black hole spin energy through mechanisms akin to the Blandford-Znajek process. We briefly consider alternatives to a black hole for the central compact object. Analysis of existing EHT polarization data and data taken simultaneously at other wavelengths will soon enable new tests of the GRMHD models, as will future EHT campaigns at 230 and 345 GHz.",
keywords = "accretion, accretion disks, black hole physics, galaxies: individual (M87), galaxies: jets, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), techniques: high angular resolution",
author = "{Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration} and Kazunori Akiyama and Antxon Alberdi and Walter Alef and Keiichi Asada and Rebecca Azulay and Baczko, {Anne Kathrin} and David Ball and Mislav Baloković and John Barrett and Dan Bintley and Lindy Blackburn and Wilfred Boland and Bouman, {Katherine L.} and Bower, {Geoffrey C.} and Michael Bremer and Brinkerink, {Christiaan D.} and Roger Brissenden and Silke Britzen and Broderick, {Avery E.} and Dominique Broguiere and Thomas Bronzwaer and Byun, {Do Young} and Carlstrom, {John E.} and Andrew Chael and Chan, {Chi Kwan} and Shami Chatterjee and Koushik Chatterjee and Chen, {Ming Tang} and Yongjun Chen and Ilje Cho and Pierre Christian and Conway, {John E.} and Cordes, {James M.} and Crew, {Geoffrey B.} and Yuzhu Cui and Jordy Davelaar and {De Laurentis}, Mariafelicia and Roger Deane and Jessica Dempsey and Gregory Desvignes and Jason Dexter and Doeleman, {Sheperd S.} and Eatough, {Ralph P.} and Heino Falcke and Fish, {Vincent L.} and Ed Fomalont and Raquel Fraga-Encinas and Venkatessh Ramakrishnan and Tuomas Savolainen and Jan Wagner",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "10",
doi = "10.3847/2041-8213/ab0f43",
language = "English",
volume = "875",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal Letters",
issn = "2041-8205",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "1",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring

AU - Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration

AU - Akiyama, Kazunori

AU - Alberdi, Antxon

AU - Alef, Walter

AU - Asada, Keiichi

AU - Azulay, Rebecca

AU - Baczko, Anne Kathrin

AU - Ball, David

AU - Baloković, Mislav

AU - Barrett, John

AU - Bintley, Dan

AU - Blackburn, Lindy

AU - Boland, Wilfred

AU - Bouman, Katherine L.

AU - Bower, Geoffrey C.

AU - Bremer, Michael

AU - Brinkerink, Christiaan D.

AU - Brissenden, Roger

AU - Britzen, Silke

AU - Broderick, Avery E.

AU - Broguiere, Dominique

AU - Bronzwaer, Thomas

AU - Byun, Do Young

AU - Carlstrom, John E.

AU - Chael, Andrew

AU - Chan, Chi Kwan

AU - Chatterjee, Shami

AU - Chatterjee, Koushik

AU - Chen, Ming Tang

AU - Chen, Yongjun

AU - Cho, Ilje

AU - Christian, Pierre

AU - Conway, John E.

AU - Cordes, James M.

AU - Crew, Geoffrey B.

AU - Cui, Yuzhu

AU - Davelaar, Jordy

AU - De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

AU - Deane, Roger

AU - Dempsey, Jessica

AU - Desvignes, Gregory

AU - Dexter, Jason

AU - Doeleman, Sheperd S.

AU - Eatough, Ralph P.

AU - Falcke, Heino

AU - Fish, Vincent L.

AU - Fomalont, Ed

AU - Fraga-Encinas, Raquel

AU - Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh

AU - Savolainen, Tuomas

AU - Wagner, Jan

PY - 2019/4/10

Y1 - 2019/4/10

N2 - The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has mapped the central compact radio source of the elliptical galaxy M87 at 1.3 mm with unprecedented angular resolution. Here we consider the physical implications of the asymmetric ring seen in the 2017 EHT data. To this end, we construct a large library of models based on general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations and synthetic images produced by general relativistic ray tracing. We compare the observed visibilities with this library and confirm that the asymmetric ring is consistent with earlier predictions of strong gravitational lensing of synchrotron emission from a hot plasma orbiting near the black hole event horizon. The ring radius and ring asymmetry depend on black hole mass and spin, respectively, and both are therefore expected to be stable when observed in future EHT campaigns. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a spinning Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. If the black hole spin and M87's large scale jet are aligned, then the black hole spin vector is pointed away from Earth. Models in our library of non-spinning black holes are inconsistent with the observations as they do not produce sufficiently powerful jets. At the same time, in those models that produce a sufficiently powerful jet, the latter is powered by extraction of black hole spin energy through mechanisms akin to the Blandford-Znajek process. We briefly consider alternatives to a black hole for the central compact object. Analysis of existing EHT polarization data and data taken simultaneously at other wavelengths will soon enable new tests of the GRMHD models, as will future EHT campaigns at 230 and 345 GHz.

AB - The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has mapped the central compact radio source of the elliptical galaxy M87 at 1.3 mm with unprecedented angular resolution. Here we consider the physical implications of the asymmetric ring seen in the 2017 EHT data. To this end, we construct a large library of models based on general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations and synthetic images produced by general relativistic ray tracing. We compare the observed visibilities with this library and confirm that the asymmetric ring is consistent with earlier predictions of strong gravitational lensing of synchrotron emission from a hot plasma orbiting near the black hole event horizon. The ring radius and ring asymmetry depend on black hole mass and spin, respectively, and both are therefore expected to be stable when observed in future EHT campaigns. Overall, the observed image is consistent with expectations for the shadow of a spinning Kerr black hole as predicted by general relativity. If the black hole spin and M87's large scale jet are aligned, then the black hole spin vector is pointed away from Earth. Models in our library of non-spinning black holes are inconsistent with the observations as they do not produce sufficiently powerful jets. At the same time, in those models that produce a sufficiently powerful jet, the latter is powered by extraction of black hole spin energy through mechanisms akin to the Blandford-Znajek process. We briefly consider alternatives to a black hole for the central compact object. Analysis of existing EHT polarization data and data taken simultaneously at other wavelengths will soon enable new tests of the GRMHD models, as will future EHT campaigns at 230 and 345 GHz.

KW - accretion, accretion disks

KW - black hole physics

KW - galaxies: individual (M87)

KW - galaxies: jets

KW - magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)

KW - techniques: high angular resolution

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85064463510&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/2041-8213/ab0f43

DO - 10.3847/2041-8213/ab0f43

M3 - Article

VL - 875

JO - Astrophysical Journal Letters

JF - Astrophysical Journal Letters

SN - 2041-8205

IS - 1

M1 - L5

ER -

ID: 33462535