Firms' degree of born-globalness, international entrepreneurial orientation and export performance

Olli Kuivalainen*, Sanna Sundqvist, Per Servais

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

288 Citations (Scopus)


Despite the recent increase in 'born-global' studies, there has been little research on how the scale and scope of being a born-global firm affects performance: most of the earlier research takes no account either the number of or the distances between the countries on firm or export performance. This article begins with a review of the existing literature on born-globals, and subsequently explores the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and two different born-global strategies, namely true born-global and apparently born-global (born-international), and the effectiveness of these two born-global pathways. The results of our empirical study on 185 Finnish exporting firms show that those that qualified as true born-globals had better export performance. Furthermore, depending on the degree of born-globalness, different dimensions of EO were of importance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-267
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of World Business
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Born-globals
  • Degree of internationalization
  • Entrepreneurial orientation
  • Performance

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