Ferrocene/naphthalimide bi-redox molecule for enhancing the cycling stability of symmetric nonaqueous redox flow battery

Donghan Xu, Cuijuan Zhang*, Yongdan Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Derived from N-(ferrocenylmethyl)-N-(butylphthalimide)-N,N-dimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide (FcPI-TFSI), ferrocene/naphthalimide (FcNI-TFSI) based ionic bipolar redox-active organic molecule is constructed via nucleophilic substitution between amines and halogenated hydrocarbons. Due to the elevated delocalized negative charge density in the radical anion, the FcNI-TFSI based nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NARFBs) exhibits substantially improved cycling stability; 764 and 233 cycles are successfully performed before 50% of the initial discharge capacity is lost at 0.01 M and 0.1 M, respectively, whereas 82 cycles for FcPI-TFSI at 0.01 M. Similar to capacity diving phenomenon in lithium-ion batteries, sudden accelerated capacity loss is observed in the high-concentration battery. The possible degradation mechanism is discussed, involving crossover issue and parasitic reactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number234368
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume602
Early online date25 Mar 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Bipolar redox-active organic molecules
  • Electrochemical energy storage
  • Ferrocene
  • Naphthalimide
  • Nucleophilic substitution
  • Symmetric nonaqueous redox flow battery

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