Feasibility study of producing multi-metal parts by Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique

Mehrdad Mousapour*, Mika Salmi, Lassi Klemettinen, Jouni Partanen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)
92 Downloads (Pure)


Additive manufacturing, or more commonly 3D printing, has been recently established as one of the most advanced technologies for fabricating multi-material parts. In this work, the possibility of manufacturing multi-metal parts by material extrusion process was studied for the first time. Three types of samples, named mixed, coupled and graded, resulting from deposition of two ferrous alloys: high carbon iron and stainless steel 316 L filaments, were successfully printed. After de-binding with different heating rates, they were isothermally sintered in the range of 1310−1400 °C for various holding times in argon atmosphere. Finally, some properties of the final parts, such as relative density, shrinkage, microstructural evolution, and hardness were analyzed. In conclusion, the relative density was measured up to 92 %, and the shrinkage recorded for the samples ranged between 10 % and 40 %. Based on the performed analyses, a relatively homogeneous microstructure was observed in the mixed sample, which indicates that the affordable metal extrusion technique could replace the conventional methods for metallic alloying.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)438-446
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Processes
Early online date17 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • 3D printing
  • Fused deposition modeling (FDM)
  • Fused filament fabrication (FFF)
  • Material extrusion (MEX)
  • Multi-metal additive manufacturing


Dive into the research topics of 'Feasibility study of producing multi-metal parts by Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this