Expert‐Guided Security Risk Assessment of Evolving Power Grids

Seppo Borenius*, Pavithra Gopalakrishnan, Lina Bertling Tjernberg, Raimo Kantola

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
78 Downloads (Pure)


Electric power grids, which form an essential part of the critical infrastructure, are evolving into highly distributed, dynamic networks in order to address the climate change. This fundamental transition relies on extensive automation solutions based on communications and information technologies. Thus, it also gives rise to new attack points for malicious actors and conse-quently, increases the vulnerability of the electric energy system. This study presents a qualitative assessment of power grid cybersecurity through expert interviews across countries in Europe and the U.S. to gain understanding of the latest developments and trends in the cybersecurity of future electric energy systems. The horizon of the assessment is 10 years spanning until the early 2030s. Thereafter, the study identifies how and to which extent the risks identified to be most significant are understood and addressed in the latest research and industry publications aiming at identifying areas deserving specific further attention. The most significant threats based on the assessment are False Data Injection (FDI), Denial of Service (DoS) supply chain, and ransomware and malware attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3237
Number of pages25
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cybersecurity
  • power grids
  • security risk assessment
  • smart grids


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