Experiments and visualization of sprays from beer can and turbo liquor nozzles

Ari Kankkunen*, Santeri Koivisto, Kari Saari, Mika Järvinen, James Biggs, Andrew Jones

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleProfessional


Industrial scale swirl-type black liquor nozzles were studied using water as the test fluid. Simple water spraying experiments were found to be very beneficial for studying and comparing nozzles for black liquor spraying. These kinds of experiments are important for finding better nozzle designs. Three nozzle designs were investigated to understand the functional differences between these nozzles. The pressure loss of nozzle 1 (“tangential swirl”) and nozzle 3 (“turbo”) were 97% and 38% higher compared to nozzle 2 (“tangential swirl”). Spray opening angles were 75°, 60°, and 35° for nozzles 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Video imaging showed that the nozzles produced sprays that were inclined a few degrees from the nozzle centerline. Spray patter-nation showed all the sprays to be asymmetric, while nozzle 2 was the most symmetric. Laser-Doppler measurements showed large differences in spray velocities between nozzles. The spray velocity for nozzle 1 increased from 9 m/s to 15 m/s when the flow rate was increased from 1.5 L/s to 2.5 L/s. The resulting velocity increase for nozzle 2 was from 7 m/s to 11 m/s, and for nozzle 3, it was from 8 m/s to 13 m/s. Tangential flow (swirl) directed the spray 6°–12° away from the vertical plane. Liquid sheet breakup mechanisms and lengths were estimated by analyzing high speed video images. The liquid sheet breakup mechanism for nozzle 1 was estimated to be wave formation, and the sheet length was estimated to be about 10 cm. Sheet breakup mechanisms for nozzle 2 were wave formation and sheet perforation, and the sheet length was about 20 cm. Nozzle 3 was not supposed to form a liquid sheet. Nozzle geometry was found to greatly affect spray characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-106
Number of pages12
JournalTAPPI Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
MoE publication typeD1 Article in a trade journal


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