Battery electric city bus model has been created and validated with measurement results from a full-scale city bus prototype. The model utilises multi-physics modelling approach with multiple-domains from friction-tyre and transmission model to electrical drive and a simplified battery model. For the electrical drive model, four approaches to model the losses were studied. The modelled and measured motor torque, speed, current in the battery and inverter, and the bus speed were compared under two bus line driving cycles using three payloads. The simulated results were in good agreement with the experimental results; the error between the simulated and measured energy consumptions was 1.5% with the most accurate model.
Halmeaho, T., Rahkola, P., Tammi, K., Pippuri, J., Pellikka, A-P., Manninen, A., & Ruotsalainen, S. (2017). Experimental Validation of Electric Bus Powertrain Model Under City Driving Cycle. IET ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS IN TRANSPORTATION, 7(1), 74 - 83. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-est.2016.0028