Experimental study on tri-fuel combustion using premixed methane-hydrogen mixtures ignited by a diesel pilot

Qiang Cheng*, Zeeshan Ahmad, Ossi Kaario, Ville Vuorinen, Martti Larmi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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A comprehensive investigation on diesel pilot spray ignited methane-hydrogen (CH4–H2) combustion, tri-fuel combustion (TF), is performed in a single-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. The experiments provide a detailed analysis of the effect of H2 concentration (based on mole fraction, MH2) and charge-air temperature (Tair) on the ignition behavior, combustion stability, cycle-to-cycle (CCV) and engine performance. The results indicate that adding H2 from 0 to 60% shortens the ignition delay time (IDT) and combustion duration (based on CA90) up to 33% and 45%, respectively. Thereby, H2 helps to increase the indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) by as much as 10%. Furthermore, to gain an insight into the combustion stability and CCV, the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) methodologies are applied to estimate the combustion stability and CCV of the TF combustion process. The results reveal that the pressure oscillation can be reduced up to 4 dB/Hz and the CCV by 50% when MH2 < 60% and Tair < 55 °C. However, when MH2 > 60% and Tair > 40 °C, abnormal combustion and knocking are observed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21182-21197
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number40
Early online date23 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jun 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • CCV
  • Combustion stability
  • Engine performance
  • Ignition behavior
  • Tri-fuel


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