Experimental study on fast and energy-efficient direct driven hydraulic actuator unit

Teemu Koitto, Heikki Kauranne, Olof Calonius*, Tatiana Minav, Matti Pietola

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
139 Downloads (Pure)


In this experimental study, a Direct Driven Hydraulics (DDH) system of the closed circuit type was utilized for cyclic vertical actuation in heavy load material handling. The actuator was controlled by a speed-controlled fixed displacement pump. The high energy saving potential of this system has been demonstrated in previous studies by the authors, but the dynamic characteristics of the ramped and P-controlled base system were considered unsatisfactory. Therefore, the system was implemented with an open-loop S-curve control that utilized a pre-calculated RPM (revolutions per minute) profile for the electric motor in order to realize a smooth actuator and load transition as a function of time. The results indicate that S-curve control is exceptionally well suited for producing a controlled lifting–lowering rapid motion with a heavy load, while still keeping the actuator chamber pressures within acceptable limits. In comparison, the motion produced by P-control was characterized by large unwanted pressure peaks together with velocity fluctuations and vibrations at the end of the stroke. Using a combination of S-curve control and hydraulic load compensation, a mass of 1325 kg could be moved 0.26 m in less than 0.5 s. The load compensation reduced the energy consumption by 64%, which would allow downsizing the electric motor and enable cost-efficient DDH implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1538
Number of pages17
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 24 Apr 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Controller
  • Direct driven hydraulics
  • Displacement-controlled hydraulics
  • Electro-hydraulic actuator
  • Energy efficiency
  • Industrial applications
  • S-curve


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