In this experimental study, a Direct Driven Hydraulics (DDH) system of the closed circuit type was utilized for cyclic vertical actuation in heavy load material handling. The actuator was controlled by a speed-controlled fixed displacement pump. The high energy saving potential of this system has been demonstrated in previous studies by the authors, but the dynamic characteristics of the ramped and P-controlled base system were considered unsatisfactory. Therefore, the system was implemented with an open-loop S-curve control that utilized a pre-calculated RPM (revolutions per minute) profile for the electric motor in order to realize a smooth actuator and load transition as a function of time. The results indicate that S-curve control is exceptionally well suited for producing a controlled lifting–lowering rapid motion with a heavy load, while still keeping the actuator chamber pressures within acceptable limits. In comparison, the motion produced by P-control was characterized by large unwanted pressure peaks together with velocity fluctuations and vibrations at the end of the stroke. Using a combination of S-curve control and hydraulic load compensation, a mass of 1325 kg could be moved 0.26 m in less than 0.5 s. The load compensation reduced the energy consumption by 64%, which would allow downsizing the electric motor and enable cost-efficient DDH implementation.
- Direct driven hydraulics
- Displacement-controlled hydraulics
- Electro-hydraulic actuator
- Energy efficiency
- Industrial applications