Experimental determination and thermodynamic optimization of the CuCl–ZnCl2, ZnCl2–FeCl3, CuCl–FeCl3, CuCl–CuCl2, FeCl2–FeCl3, FeCl2–CuCl2 and CuCl–PbCl2 phase equilibria

Hanna Viitala*, Pekka Taskinen, Daniel Lindberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


In copper flash smelting, flue dust causes corrosion problems in the heat recovery boiler of the gas train due to formation of dust accretions on the boiler walls. Within these, presence of heavy metal chlorides results in formation of molten salt deposits causing rapid corrosion. CuCl–ZnCl2, FeCl3–ZnCl2 and CuCl–FeCl3 systems were studied experimentally by equilibration-quenching, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to evaluate melting behaviour of these chlorides, typically present in the corrosive dust deposits. In addition, CuCl–PbCl2, CuCl–CuCl2, FeCl2–FeCl3 and CuCl2–FeCl2 phase diagrams were optimized incorporating and evaluating all available phase diagram and thermodynamic data on the systems. The modified quasi-chemical model was used to describe the thermodynamic properties of molten phases and compound energy formalism was used to model the terminal solid solutions. The calculated phase diagrams are presented and compared with experimental observations as well as with all available phase diagram data from existing literature.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101667
JournalCalphad: Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Chloride solutions
  • Equilibration-quenching method
  • Phase diagram
  • Thermodynamic modelling

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