Experimental analysis of emission efficiency of parallel and serial connected radiators in EN442 test chamber

Karl-Villem Võsa, Andrea Ferrantelli*, Tuule Mall Kull, Jarek Kurnitski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


In the wide context of energy performance, the design of standard radiators has shown a large improvement in the past decades. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to achieve better understanding of the radiators emission losses. We conduct measurements of temperature and heat output of different types of emitters in a test chamber of the standard EN 442-2, aiming to quantify the emission efficiency differences of the radiators studied. We find that in the absence of ventilation, the air stratification is relevant and can explain the heat output differences between repeated tests of the same radiator. Moreover, correlation curves are derived between relative heat output and radiative component, and between heat output and air and operative temperature difference. Our detailed analysis shows that thermal comfort is more easily achieved with 11-type radiators, due to the bigger panel surface area, and with 22-type serial-connected radiators, due to their higher front surface panel temperature. From the measured data we derive the ratio of surface to total thermal resistance of the radiator, and the convective heat transfer coefficient dependency on the room geometry. While the majority of our results apply strictly to the EN442 test chamber, these can be used for the application to an ordinary room.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)531-544
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Heat emission efficiency
  • Mean radiant temperature
  • Operative temperature
  • Water radiator

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