Exotic vortex structures in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates

Pekko Kuopanportti

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles

Abstract

In 1995, atomic physics took a quantum leap with the experimental discovery of almost ideal Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms. The gaseous condensates offer a rare chance to study an interacting many-particle system accurately from first-principles theories, and they can be used to simulate many seminal models that have proven elusive in their original context of, e.g., solid-state or high-energy physics. An important topic in the research has been the quantized vortex, which was experimentally realized in 1999 and whose existence is intimately related to the concepts of quantum phase coherence and superfluidity. In this dissertation, unconventional vortex structures are investigated in the dilute condensates at ultralow temperatures. A combination of analytical and numerical methods is used to examine the structure, stability, and dynamical behavior of multiquantum vortices and vortex-antivortex pairs in spin-polarized condensates, unusual vortex lattices in two-species condensates, and spin textures in condensates with dipolar interactions. In studying the properties of the multiquantum vortices, particular emphasis is placed on exploring the practical limits of producing them through adiabatic pumping of vorticity. The majority of the research is conducted by solving the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii and Bogoliubov equations. Various original, experimentally verifiable results concerning the exotic vortex structures are presented. Novel splitting patterns of vortices with large quantum numbers are introduced, and it is shown that such vortices can be feasibly stabilized by piercing them with a focused laser beam. A recent experiment on vortex-antivortex pairs is simulated, and an excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental data is obtained. Unconventional ground-state vortex lattices, such as ones having a square geometry or consisting of two-quantum vortices, are shown to exist in rotating two-species condensates. Dipolar interactions are found to support helical spin-vortex states, and the energies of spin-wave excitations are observed to increase rapidly with the dipolar coupling strength. This dissertation contributes to the understanding of superfluid phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates and has significant implications for the prospects of detecting novel vortex structures in current experiments.
Translated title of the contributionEksoottiset vorteksirakenteet kaasumaisissa Bosen-Einsteinin kondensaateissa
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor's degree
Awarding Institution
  • Aalto University
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Nieminen, Risto, Supervisor
  • Möttönen, Mikko, Advisor
Publisher
Print ISBNs978-952-60-4784-3
Electronic ISBNs978-952-60-4785-0
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

Keywords

  • Bose-Einstein condensation
  • superfluidity
  • vortex

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