Evidence of Coronavirus (CoV) Pathogenesis and Emerging Pathogen SARS-CoV-2 in the Nervous System: A Review on Neurological Impairments and Manifestations

Niraj Kumar Jha*, Shreesh Ojha, Saurabh Kumar Jha, Harish Dureja, Sachin Kumar Singh, Shakti D. Shukla, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Gaurav Gupta, Shanu Bhardwaj, Neeraj Kumar, Madhan Jeyaraman, Rashmi Jain, Sathish Muthu, Rohan Kar, Dhruv Kumar, Vineet Kumar Goswami, Janne Ruokolainen, Kavindra Kumar Kesari, Sandeep Kumar Singh, Kamal Dua

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an issue of global significance that has taken the lives of many across the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for its pathogenesis. The pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have been well described in the literature. Initially, it was thought to be limited to the respiratory system; however, we now recognize that COVID-19 also affects several other organs, including the nervous system. Two similar human coronaviruses (CoV) that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) are also known to cause disease in the nervous system. The neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are growing rapidly, as evidenced by several reports. There are several mechanisms responsible for such manifestations in the nervous system. For instance, post-infectious immune-mediated processes, direct virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), and virus-induced hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable states are commonly involved. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and its variants, dysfunction of taste and smell, and muscle injury are numerous examples of COVID-19 PNS (peripheral nervous system) disease. Likewise, hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, endothelialitis, and venous sinus thrombosis are some instances of COVID-19 CNS disease. Due to multifactorial and complicated pathogenic mechanisms, COVID-19 poses a large-scale threat to the whole nervous system. A complete understanding of SARS-CoV-2 neurological impairments is still lacking, but our knowledge base is rapidly expanding. Therefore, we anticipate that this comprehensive review will provide valuable insights and facilitate the work of neuroscientists in unfolding different neurological dimensions of COVID-19 and other CoV associated abnormalities.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages18
JournalJOURNAL OF MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 Jan 2021
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal

Keywords

  • ACE2
  • Cerebrovascular disease
  • Coronavirus (CoV)
  • COVID-19
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Nervous system
  • Neuropathogenesis
  • SARS-CoV-2

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