Evaluation of the reliability of solar micro-grids in emerging markets – Issues and solutions

Sini Numminen*, Peter D. Lund

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
76 Downloads (Pure)


One of the most important technical features of a power system is its ability to deliver electricity reliably to the customers. Based on interviews with 12 energy service companies (ESCO) currently operating solar micro-grids in northern rural India, this study identified important factors related to technical design, customer behaviour and operations and management (O&M) that may result in contingencies in service. In addition, the study presents companies' innovative solutions to overcome these problems. Initially, the interview method allowed only a rough qualitative comparison of different reliability levels as the availability of comparable data was limited. We found that a more descriptive method for reliability assessment would create equally valuable information on renewable off-grid energy projects. We propose a simple framework for assessing reliability that highlights the particular features of off-grid areas in developing countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-42
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Energy systems in developing countries
  • India
  • Micro-grid
  • Reliability
  • Reliability assessment
  • Technical sustainability


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