Evaluation of selected state-of-the-art methods for ship transit simulation in various ice conditions based on full-scale measurement

Fang Li*, Floris Goerlandt, Pentti Kujala, Jonni Lehtiranta, Mikko Lensu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


For the design and transit simulation of ice-going ships, a number of methods have been proposed for the prediction of ship resistance and transit speed in various ice conditions. In this paper, selected methods for ship performance in level ice, ridged ice and channel ice are evaluated based on full-scale measurement data of two ships. Uncertainties are identified and evaluated for a better understanding of the deviations in the results. Ice thickness in full-scale data was measured using multiple methods to minimize the uncertainty. The thickness of level ice was measured by a stereo camera system. The ridge profile was identified through measurement with an electromagnetic device. Visual observation was conducted for the description of encountered ice conditions. For a better estimation of ship net thrust through propulsive data, the net thrust model is revised in this paper to take the effect of power and propeller pitch into consideration. The results show that for transit simulation, the selected methods for level ice give acceptable prediction of ship speed with certain underestimation. For ridged ice, the method seems to underestimate the speed, especially when a ship needs to conduct ramming operation. Data acquisition is the most problematic for the investigation of channel ice. The uncertainties due to the modelling of sub-processes and ice properties lead to certain scatter in applying these methods for speed prediction. Possible improvements are given as the conclusion of this work.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)94-108
Number of pages15
JournalCold Regions Science and Technology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Full-scale test
  • Level ice
  • Ridged ice
  • Ship performance in ice
  • Transit simulation

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