Evaluating Social Impact of Smart City Technologies and Services: Methods, Challenges, Future Directions

Elise Hodson*, Teija Vainio, Michel Nader Sayun, Martin Tomitsch, Ana Jones, Meri Jalonen, Ahmet Börütecene, Md Tanvir Hasan, Irina Paraschivoiu, Annika Wolff, Sharon Yavo-Ayalon, Sari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Gareth W. Young

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
68 Downloads (Pure)


This study examines motivations, definitions, methods and challenges of evaluating the social impacts of smart city technologies and services. It outlines concepts of social impact assessment and discusses how social impact has been included in smart city evaluation frameworks. Thematic analysis is used to investigate how social impact is addressed in eight smart city projects that prioritise human-centred design across a variety of contexts and development phases, from design research and prototyping to completed and speculative projects. These projects are notable for their emphasis on human, organisational and natural stakeholders; inclusion, participation and empowerment; new methods of citizen engagement; and relationships between sustainability and social impact. At the same time, there are gaps in the evaluation of social impact in both the smart city indexes and the eight projects. Based on our analysis, we contend that more coherent, consistent and analytical approaches are needed to build narratives of change and to comprehend impacts before, during and after smart city projects. We propose criteria for social impact evaluation in smart cities and identify new directions for research. This is of interest for smart city developers, researchers, funders and policymakers establishing protocols and frameworks for evaluation, particularly as smart city concepts and complex technologies evolve in the context of equitable and sustainable development.
Original languageEnglish
Article number33
Number of pages32
JournalMultimodal Technologies and Interaction
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Field of art

  • Design
  • Architecture


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